Join Medicalia.org [Versión en Español] WELCOME MESSAGE Welcome to The Collaborative Neurology Book. This book is an open access resource where everyone is invited to collaborate. To send your work email at email@example.com or just write a Knol and send it to our collections. This is the one and only collaborative book on neurology. […]
The aim is to find ideas to cope with rising costs, access to good healthcare and how to limit future increases.
With over 100 PPPs active in single or multiple global diseases the impact on outcome and metrics is discussed. The global impact of PPPs is difficult to evaluate due to lack of validated measurable objective parameters. Overview of rationale for PPP formation and growth is discussed. PPP provide better focus, objectives and resource mobilization and have contributed to increased R&D in tropical and neglected diseases of the poor. Disease burden of the poor and developing countries remains a major barrier to economic prosparity and global peace. The mission statements, objectives and achievements of some of these PPPs and charitable foundations are similar. It is elimination of a single or multiple diseases to increase prosperity, productivity and peace. None of the PPP is set up in countries with high disease burden. Control of high operating costs and wastage is required. In 2007 the total funding for global health was 22 billion out of which 7 billion was by PPP and foundations.
Despite awards of 5 Nobel prizes to 9 leading biomedical scientists, the concept of treating some cancer as infectious diseases has not yet gained the public and media attention or acceptance. Infections cause about 21% of the global cancer burden. The carcinogenic infections are caused by mainly herpes viruses, papilloma viruses, retroviruses, hepatitis viruses, bacteria helicobacter pylori and liver flukes and worms. These infectious cancer can be prevented with vaccines and treated with antiviral, antibacterial and antiparasitical agents in a cost effective manner than traditional costly and toxic anticancer drugs. Once again the burden is higher in poor and developing countries (40% of cancer burden) in comparison with Western developed countries (10% of cancer burden). These cancer can be reduced by existing treatment and vaccines and funding new R&D for new safe and effective drugs.
The recent outbreak of plague in China resulting in deaths of 3 persons led to the complete sealoff or quarantine of a town of 10000 persons. This episode brings back the spotlight on Plague. A multimedia rich article is provided. The impact of plague from the Black Death of the middle ages in Europe, its coverage in our mainstream literature classics and the fear it still provokes in humans is discussed. Plague if left untreated kills 60% of its victims. The disease if detected early can be treated with antibiotics, vaccine use is limited to healthcare persons dealing with the patients and infected animals. Plague was never wiped out from the globe and outbreaks occur fairly regularly in communities in close contacts/interactions with animals mainly in the developing countries. The last outbreak of Plague in India in 1996 resulted in loss of $3 billion due to ban of imports and travel advisory by rich countries. Financial impact of the disease is huge in poor economies. The first pandemic to strike the humanity mentioned in the Exodus.
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A dynamic multimedia review of malaria is presented here. It combines images, diagrams, video links, slides and live feeds from WHO, CDC and updates from top biomedical journals. Malaria remains a major killer infecting 300-500 million persons each year and killing over 1 million patients. MMV estimates that every 30 seconds a child dies of malaria even though treatment is available and these untimely deaths can be prevented. The annual funding of $5 billion is required to make a significant impact on malaria deaths and cases. The actual funding in 2009 was only $1.5 billion barely about 30% of the requirement . World malaria day 2011, major progress made in Africa, newcases and deaths reduced by over 50% in 11 countries. The GSK malaria vaccine shows efficacy in a major global trial. Still around 3.3 billion persons remain at risk and 225 million cases were reported to the WHO in 2009 with 781000 deaths. The malaria related mortality rates declined by 25% during the last decade and by 33% in the endemic African countries. This was due to better malaria resources mobilization, prevention and control measures like bed nets, rapid diagnostic tests and low cost medicines to treat malaria. The current economic difficulties and emergence of drug and insecticide resistance poses significant challenges.
Ayurveda originated as oral tradition in 5000-2000 BC and in written form around 1500 BC. It flourished from 1000 BC – 1000 AD and then declined from 1200 AD to 1800 AD due to Muslim invasion and destruction. Ayurveda, the traditional system of medicine is still used in India by over 70% of its population. Ayurveda is a body/mind /spirit or holistic way to achieve health and its practitioners recommend diet and lifestyles changes along with drug therapy. It tried to put medical knowledge on a rational and scientific basis excluding magic, sacrifices and mysticism unlike the Vedic period. Surgery was a major component of Ayurveda till 600 AD but it is seldom used now. The code of ethics for physicians was well developed. The contributions of Ayurveda to modern system of medicine in surgery, herbal medicine, yoga and meditation will be covered. The reasons for its decline were failure to evolve and take up new ideas, close ties with religion. All animal parts, heavy metals, pesticides, microbes and toxins must be eliminated from Ayurvedic preparations. There is a need to prove the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic drugs in animal models and double blind placebo controlled trials in adequate number of patients. However its low cost, easy accessibility to poor and uneducated communities make it imperative to modernize Ayurveda in the light of advances in science and medicine and incorporate some of its validated and tested ideas into primary healthcare and modern medical practice. TCM has a much larger share of the global market than Ayurveda.
Darwin has proposed a widely accepted mechanism explaining the evolution of biological species, natural selection: generally more offspring are produced than can be supported by environmental resources; individuals of a population differ genetically and those survive or at least produce more offspring which succeed in the competition for resources (struggle for existence).
However, evolution is not restricted to biological species, we observe that human societies, states, economic systems, scientific theories etc. can evolve as well. Is it possible to develop a theory which includes the explanation of the development (evolution) of such systems?
Here we discuss critically Peter Mersch’s Systemic Theory of Evolution. Peter Mersch is a mathematician with much experience in information technology and has published several books on the theory. This knol is an extended translation of my German knol on the topic.
In Summer 2008, Google launched Knol, immediately branded as Google’s answer to Wikipedia. This article focus on how Knol – and other forms of electronic self-publishing – may signal the end of medical publishing as we have known it.
Die Bedeutung von Meeresparasiten in der freien Natur und in Aquakultur, sowie als Krankheitserreger des Menschen werden besprochen. Nur ein sehr kleiner Prozentsatz der Meeresparasiten ist bekannt, und quantitativ gut belegte, durch Parasiten verursachte Beispiele von Massensterben in der offenen See sind selten, obwohl einige Fälle von Massensterben von Fischen, Verhungern von in den Filamenten von Trematodenlarven verfangenen Seevögeln, sowie Mortalität und Stranden von Meeressäugern als Folge von Parasiteninfektionen bekannt sind. Als Beispiel unter den Wirbellosen werden Schwämme angeführt, die eine wichtige Rolle in der Bioerosion von Korallenriffen spielen. Parasiten sind wahrscheinlich die wichtigste Ursache von Verlusten in der Aquakultur von Fischen und Mollusken, deren wirtschaftliche Bedeutung enorm ist. Wichtige Infektionen des Menschen sind Anisakiasis, Trichinose, Angiostrongylose, und Cercarien-Dermatitis.