Despite awards of 5 Nobel prizes to 9 leading biomedical scientists, the concept of treating some cancer as infectious diseases has not yet gained the public and media attention or acceptance. Infections cause about 21% of the global cancer burden. The carcinogenic infections are caused by mainly herpes viruses, papilloma viruses, retroviruses, hepatitis viruses, bacteria helicobacter pylori and liver flukes and worms. These infectious cancer can be prevented with vaccines and treated with antiviral, antibacterial and antiparasitical agents in a cost effective manner than traditional costly and toxic anticancer drugs. Once again the burden is higher in poor and developing countries (40% of cancer burden) in comparison with Western developed countries (10% of cancer burden). These cancer can be reduced by existing treatment and vaccines and funding new R&D for new safe and effective drugs.
World Cancer Day 4 February, 2011 UICC/WHO
Infections Causing Human Cancer. was 2007. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. 532p. ISBN: (Hardcover) 9783527310562. US $215
Electron Micrograph Epstein Barr Virus
From CDC PHIL 2982
Nobel Prize Awards in Infections and Cancer
2. 1975 Nobel Prize in Medicine for interactions between tumor virus and host cells
David L. Baltimore
|Born||7 March 1938
New York City, New York, USA
|Institutions||Massachusetts Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology
|Alma mater||Swarthmore College
|Known for||Reverse transcriptase|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine(1975)|
|Howard Martin Temin|
Howard Martin Temin
|Born||December 10, 1934
|Died||February 9, 1994
|Nationality||United States of America|
|Institutions||University of Wisconsin–Madison|
|Alma mater||California Institute of Technology|
|Known for||reverse transcriptase|
|Notable awards||1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|Born||February 22, 1914 (age 95)
|Institutions||California Institute of Technology
London Research Institute
|Alma mater||University of Turin|
|Known for||Reverse transcriptase|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1975|
The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2008 with one half to
Harald zur Hausen
for his discovery of “human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”
and the other half jointly to
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier
for their discovery of “human immunodeficiency virus”
|Harald zur Hausen|
|Born||March 11, 1936 (age 73)
|Institutions||German Cancer Research Center|
|Known for||Discovery that HPV can causecervical cancer|
|Notable awards||2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
Distribution of cervical cancer
The global public health burden attributable to human papilloma virus is considerable. More than 5% of all cancers worldwide are caused by persistent infection with this virus. Infection by the human papilloma virus is the most common sexually transmitted agent, afflicting 50-80% of the population.
Tumor Bacteria Helicobacter pylori
5. Robin Warren in 1979 first observed the bacteria in 50% of biopsy samples from patients who had died due to ulcer. A new biopsy study was done by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren in 100 Australian patients to confirm the earlier findings. The bacterium was isolated and cultured for the first time in 1982, Helicobacter pylori, bacteria on the surface of the gastric
The bacteria probably spread directly from person to person orally and is acquired during birth from mother to child. If an individual is not infected before the age of 10 years, he has very little risk of being later. Helicobacter pylori are detected in more than 90% of people with duodenal ulcers and in about 80% of those with gastric ulcer. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is one of the most chronic infections throughout the world: 20 to 90% of adults are infected in different countries. The infection is more common in developing countries (60 to 80% of the population affected), while it is lowest in the industrialized countries (20 to 50% of the population that is affected, especially those disadvantage).
A sharp rise in the elderly population is observed.
Lymphoma of MALT (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) even rarer was his prognosis changed
since the knowledge of Helicobacter pylori.
NCI Visuals Online
Worms causing Human Sufferings
Schistosomiasis and Bladder Cancer
Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma.
In the body, the larvae develop into adult schistosomes, which live in the blood vessels. The females release eggs, some of which are passed out of the body in the urine or faeces.
In urinary schistosomiasis, there is progressive damage to the bladder, ureters and kidneys.
In intestinal schistosomiasis, there is progressive enlargement of the liver and spleen, intestinal damage, and hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels.
Control of schistosomiasis is based on drug treatment, snail control, improved sanitation and health education.
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is the major health risk in the rural areas of Central China and Egypt and continues to rank high in other developing countries.
• Some 600 million people are at risk of becoming infected. It is estimated that 200 million people are already infected.
• Schistosomiasis contributes to 27.6% of bladder cancer. Over 350’000 new cases of bladder cancer are recorded worldwide.
• Extreme poverty, the unawareness of the risks, the inadequacy or total lack of public health facilities plus the unsanitary environment are all factors contributing to the risk of infection.
• Schistosomiasis is an avoidable risk factor which could reduce the burden of bladder cancer in developing
CDC PHIL 11201
Schistosoma mansoni trematodes
References, Direct Links and Knols
Sources, data and images cited and used are mainly from WHO, CDC, NIH or World Health Day related to the disease
- Ascariasis * (CDC, WHO, WHO-general)
- Ascaris lumbricoides * (CDC, WHO, WHO-general)
- Bilharzia (CDC, WHO, WHO-PPC) (see also Schistosomiasis)
- Dracunculiasis (CDC, WHO)
- Dracunculus medinensis (CDC, WHO)
- Fasciola gigantica (CDC, WHO)
- Fasciola hepatica (CDC, WHO)
- Fascioliasis (CDC, WHO)
- Guinea Worm Disease (CDC, WHO) (see also Dracunculiasis)
- Helminthiasis * (WHO, WHO-PPC)
- Hookworm * (CDC, WHO-general)
- Lymphatic filariasis * (CDC, WHO)
- Malaria ** (CDC, WHO)
- Onchocerciasis ** (CDC, WHO)
- River Blindness ** (CDC, WHO) (see also Onchocerciasis)
- Scabies * (CDC, WHO)
- Schistosoma (CDC, WHO)
- Schistosomiasis (CDC, WHO)
- Soil transmitted helminths * (WHO, WHO-PPC)
- Trichuris trichuria (whipworm) * (CDC, WHO-general)